There is a large range of books and booklets about Bollington or those produced for specific events in the town. The following list contains all that I know about but is certainly not complete. If you know of others please send me a message and tell me about them! Thanks. This first selection are available for sale through the Discovery Centre and, in some cases, at newsagents and booksellers.
St. Oswald’s Church, Bollington, the first 100 Years
The Shrigley Abduction
Copies of this old book are available through the Discovery Centre only!
Bollington And Kerridge
A collection of Historical Articles and Personal Memories. Thought to have been out of print, a number were found among the late Dr John Coope’s effects. We are most grateful to his family for allowing us to make them exclusively available through the Discovery Centre .
Bollington through the Centuries,
Looking Back at Bollington,
This has been re-printed and is available through the Discovery Centre .
Voices from the Past,
No longer available.
200 Years of Bollington Methodism
Portrait of a Village:
Out of print. Sometimes available on eBay
Cotton Town, Bollington & the Swindells family in the 19th Century
Copies have been seen on eBay.
Bollington 1911, Roy Arnold & Dave Williams. What the Census revealed, and what local life was like 100 years ago. Illustrated. Hard to find.
Bollington 1914 -1918 … and more, the story of local folk in time of war, Roy Arnold & Dave Williams. Stories from WWI at home and abroad together with listings of all those who gave their lives including a short obituary where information is available.
Few copies available, try the Discovery Centre and Bridgend Centre. £7.99 (proceeds to charity).
A Guide to Bollington, “The Happy Valley”, Bollington Town Council.
|When Nancy was Young …, Stan Braddock, Ed, Festival Committee, Revised 1980. This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay|
Bollington in old picture postcards,
This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay
|Walks Around Bollington (3 sheets), Festival Committee, 1980.|
|Reflections on Bollington, Edited by Pam Barfield & Ann Mayer, Spheresprint, 1993. Memories of local people supplemented by old photographs and other memorabilia. This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay|
|Reflections on Bollington vol. II, Edited by Pam Barfield & Ann Mayer, Spheresprint, 1995. This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay|
|Reflections on Bollington vol. III, Edited by Pam Barfield & Ann Mayer, Sphere UK Print & Design, 1997. This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay|
|From Adversity to Victory, The hardship and heroism of Bollington people during the Second World War, A unique collection of personal memories …, Compiled by Bollington Bridgend Centre, 2005. This book is out of print. Sometimes available on eBay|
None of the documents listed below are thought to be in print or available for purchase. Odd copies may appear on eBay from time to time. Most are kept in public archives where they may be inspected by following the usual procedures.
|Happy Valley Drink In(n)s, Festival Committee, 1974. All the up to date information on Bollington pubs is available elsewhere in this web site.|
|Bollington Festival, Souvenir Brochure 1964, Festival Committee, 1964. Programme and guide to the festival.|
|Bollington Festival, May 23 – June 4 1980, Festival Committee, 1980. Programme and guide to the festival.|
|Bollington Festival, May 24 – June 4 1986, Festival Committee, 1986. Programme and guide to the festival.|
|The Industrial Revolution in East Cheshire, George Longden, Groundwork Trust, 1988. Though not entirely about Bollington, this history based on six themed walks provides very interesting text and old photographs of the area as well as being an excellent guide to walking the town.|
|A Factory Community, Samuel Greg in Bollington, Cheshire Museums & Archives education project.|
|Bollington Parish Church 1834 – 1984, Nigel Watson, 1984. History of St. John’s Church, important now that it is closed.|
|Bollington Town Conservation Area, Macclesfield Borough Council, 1977.Much of this material is available on this web site.|
Many of the booklets were published for Bollington festivals. Consequently, they are not always available for very long afterwards. Some may still exist on the bottom shelves of local newsagents, shops, the Bridgend Centre or on eBay. Others have been published through the book trade and may be available from bookshops and newsagents. Many are available for reference at Bollington Library.
An ongoing chronicle of Bollington life can be found in Bollington Live! which is published three times each year and has been so since 1994. It is delivered free to every household throughout Bollington, Pott Shrigley and Whiteley Green. Reference copies are available at the Library or you can read it online.
Then there are publications that are really about other subjects than Bollington but which contain significant references to the town or the immediate area.
These four books are essentially about railways but each contains something about Bollington …
The Macclesfield, Bollington & Marple Railway, Basil Jeuda, Cheshire County Council, 1983, ISBN 0904532 04 6. Frequently on eBay.
Railways of the Macclesfield District, Basil Jeuda, Wyvern Publications, 1984, ISBN 0907941 07 9. Occasionally on eBay.
North Staffordshire Railway, Basil Jeuda, Cheshire Libraries, 1986, ISBN 0 904532 21 6.
The Railways of Macclesfield and the line to Bollington, Poynton & Marple (Rose Hill), Basil Jeuda, 1995, Foxline Publishing, from the Scenes From The Past series, No.27, ISBN 1 870119 44 4.
Guide to the Macclesfield & Upper Peak Forest Canals, Tim Boddington and The Macclesfield Canal Society. 3rd edition published May 2002 but now out of print and hard to find.
Seventeenth Century Rainow, Jane Laughton, 1990.
The Letters of Mrs. Gaskell, editors Arthur Pollard, J. A. V. Chapple. Please note – The Mrs Elizabeth Gaskell of letters fame is not one of the Mrs Gaskells that lived at Ingersley Hall in Bollington! However, Elizabeth Gaskell did regularly visit her friends the Samuel Gregs in Bollington and at least one of her books, North & South, is modeled on her observations of industrial power between Samuel and other Gregs and the workers at Lowerhouse Mill, Bollington.
Abduction: Story of Ellen Turner, Kate M Atkinson, 2002, ISBN 9543896-0-3. The subject matter is the same as the book below.
The Shrigley Abduction, Abby Ashby & Audrey Jones, 2003. A true story about the daughter of the Turner family who lived at Shrigley Hall in the early 19thC. Not quite Bollington but an excellent local social history recording a remarkable and infamous incident. This book is available from the Discovery Centre .
Pott Shrigley, The Story of a village school, Tom Askey, 1968.
Pott Shrigley, The Village and its Parish Council 1894-1970, Tom Askey, 1970.
The following well illustrated book collects together pictures and history of many places in east Cheshire, containing just two pages on Bollington:
Looking Back at East Cheshire, George Longden & Molly Spink, Willow Publishing, 1989, 40 pages. No longer easily available but copies appear on eBay now and again.
These histories contain some reference to the town or its immediate area. Several of these are taken from the references in Bollington Through the Centuries:
A Description of the Country Round Manchester, Dr. Aikin.
Articles on Local History, Mr. Walter Smith.
Contributions to the History of the Ancient Parish of Prestbury, Dr. Reynaud.
History of Cheshire, Samuel Bagshaw.
History of Cheshire, Dr. Ormerod.
East Cheshire: past and present, or, A history of the hundred of Macclesfield, in the county palatine of Chester from original records, Dr. John Parsons Earwaker, 1877. (Usually referred to as History of East Cheshire.)
Roman remains in the eastern part of Cheshire, Dr. John Parsons Earwaker, 1877. (Not confirmed but likely to include the Bollington area.)
Old Cheshire Families, Butterworth, rpt 1971.
Local newspapers contain many references – Cheshire Sheaf, Macclesfield Courier, Macclesfield Times, and in modern times the Macclesfield Express, Community News and Cheshire Independent.
There are also regular items about the town in Cheshire Life including:
“Goodbye to the Flicks”, Roy Arnold, September 1980, page 70 which refers to the Bollington Empire in Palmerston Street (Hailwood House now stands on the site of this).
The following publications are both very old and no longer in publication. The items are taken from the ‘Books consulted’ list in Portrait of a Village: The Happy Valley.
A Layman’s Legacy, Samuel Greg.
Distaff; Jubilee Distaff, Fine Spinners & Doublers Limited. An incomplete set of these has been generously donated to the Civic Society collection and are available for reference. Each copy, there are 32 in the set, contains up to two pages of Bollington stories.
There is one item that has, so far as is known, never been published in book form.
Thomas Oliver & Sons (Bollington) Ltd. Notes on the History of the Firm during 150 years, Revd. A. C. Oliver, February 1940. Olivers occupied Waterhouse Mill. Only one copy of this hand-written history is known to exist and that is now in the Civic Society collection. It is very hard to read but has now been deciphered and typed up by willing volunteers. It is published on this web site with the history of Waterhouse mill.
Finally, there are the historical references, items that will interest the serious historian. These may not always contain reference to Bollington but may give information about the area in which the town is situated, or perhaps something about a particular time in this part of the country, giving background as to why the town has developed the way it has. I am indebted to George Longden for this masterful list. A very few items have subsequently been added to his list.
1,000 TONS OF COAL WEEKLY AT KERRIDGE WAS THE TARGET, Clifford Rathbone, article in Macclesfield Express, 12 June 1969
A CENTENARY HISTORY OF THE WESLEYAN METHODIST CHURCH OF BOLLINGTON IN THE MACCLESFIELD CIRCUIT, W. H. Oliver Lake (Minister), Hazell, Watson and Viney Ltd., 1908
A DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY FROM 30 TO 40 MILES AROUND MANCHESTER, J. Aikin, 1795
A HISTORY OF CHESHIRE, Alan Crosby, 1996
A HISTORY OF MACCLESFIELD, C. Stella Davies, 1961
A HISTORY OF THE CHESHIRE COUNTY UNION OF CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES, Thomas Griffiths & Co, Manchester, 1907. Congregationalism in Bollington is covered on pages 173-177
A SHINING LIGHT, THE STORY OF HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, KERRIDGE, 1897-1997, Emily White, 1997
A SHORT HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE BOLLINGTON WATERWORKS, S. Knight, 1923
A SKETCH OF THE PARISH OF PRESTBURY, G. Y. Osborne, 1840
A WIZARD WALK, George Longden, Living Edge Magazine, Vol 1, no.2, 1998
AGREEMENT BETWEEN GEORGE ANTROBUS & JOSEPH WAGSTAFF, fragments, n.d., Bollington Civic Society archive, Antrobus collection, no. 9
ALFRED GATLEY, KERRIDGE BOY WHO BECAME A SCULPTER (sic), Bollington Festival Brochure, 1964
ALFRED GATLEY’S DIARY AND LETTERBOOKS, from a transcript formerly in the possession of Mrs. Rathbone, Bollington Cross
AN OXFORD UNIVERSITY STUDENT 19TH CENTURY STYLE, Margaret Hughes, Macclesfield Advertiser, April 1979
ANTROBUS PEDIGREES, Sir Reginald L. Antrobus, 1929
BAGSHAW’S CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1850
BOLLINGTON LAND TAX RETURNS, Cheshire Record Office
BOLLINGTON RATE BOOK, 1854 (copy in Bollington Town Hall archive)
BOLLINGTON TITHE MAP AND APPORTIONMENT, 1848, Cheshire Record Office (photocopies Macclesfield Public Library)
BRYANT’S CHESHIRE MAP, 1831, Cheshire Record Office
BUILDINGS OF ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL INTEREST, Dept of Environment, HMSO 1983
BURDETT’S CHESHIRE MAP 1777, Cheshire Record Office
CHESHIRE COUNTRY HOUSES, P. de Figueiredo & J. Treuherz, 1988
CHESHIRE MAP, P.P. Burdett, 1777
CHESHIRE: A GENEALOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY, Stuart Raymond
CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF PLACE NAMES, 4th Ed, E. Ekwall, 1960
DEPOSITION BY WILLIAM RICHARDSON OF RAINOW, MILLWRIGHT, 8 Aug 1806, Adlington Hall archive (copy of transcript in hands of writer)
DICTIONARY OF BRITISH SCULPTORS 1660-1851, Rupert Gunnis, revised ed (nd)
DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY, 1993 ed., vol 7
DRAFT SURRENDER, MANOR AND FOREST OF MACCLESFIELD, 1792, Cheshire Record Office D 5075/12 no.10
DRAFT SURRENDERS, MANOR AND FOREST OF MACCLESFIELD, 1792, Cheshire Record Office D 5075/113, nos 24, 45
EAST CHESHIRE TEXTILE MILL SURVEY FILES, 1980s, Macclesfield Museums
EAST CHESHIRE TEXTILE MILLS, Anthony Calladine & Jean Fricker, 1993
ENGLISH PLACE NAMES, Kenneth Cameron, 1961
GENERAL VIEW OF THE AGRICULTURE OF CHESHIRE, Henry Holland, 1808
GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY AROUND MACCLESFIELD, CONGLETON, CREWE, AND MIDDLEWICH, T. I. Pocock, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1906
GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY AROUND MACCLESFIELD, CONGLETON, CREWE AND MIDDLEWICH, W. B. Evans. A. A. Wilson, B. J. Taylor, & D. Price, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1968
GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY AROUND STOCKPORT, MACCLESFIELD, CONGLETON AND LEEK, E. Hull & A. H. Green, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1866
GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY AROUND STOCKPORT AND KNUTSFORD, B. J. Taylor, R. H. Price, & F. M. Trotter, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1963
GREENWOOD’S CHESHIRE MAP, 1819, Cheshire Record Office
HISTORY OF OLD MACCLESFIELD, John Earles, one of series of articles in Macclesfield Courier, 31 March 1917
KELLY’S CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1878
KELLY’S CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1892
KELLY’S CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1896
KELLY’S CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1902
LANDSCAPE HISTORY DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST, Edited by Sharon M Varey & Graeme J White, University of Chester Press, 2012, ISBN 978-1-908258-00-7. Contains a chapter on An East Cheshire Township in Transition [Bollington] by Tom Swailes
LIFE AND LABOUR IN VICTORIAN MACCLESFIELD, George Longden, 1986
LIVES OF THE ENGINEERS, Samuel Smiles, 1904 edition
MACCLESFIELD COURIER (microfilm in Macclesfield Public Library)
MACCLESFIELD IN THE LATER FOURTEENTH CENTURY, A. M. Tonkinson, 1999
MANCHESTER MERCURY, Manchester Central Library, microfilm
MANOR OF GAWSWORTH, Raymond Richards, 1974 edition
MAP, 1611, Public Record Office MR 354
MELLOR’S GARDENS, 2nd ed., R.C. Turner, 1989
MELLOR’S GARDENS, R.C. Turner, Garden History, vol 15, no.2, autumn 1987
MEMOIR OF THE LATE JAMES MELLOR, 1891
METHODISM IN MACCLESFIELD, Benjamin Smith, 1875
MORRIS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1874
NOTES ON THE WORKS OF ALFRED GATLEY, handwritten ms by Dr John Coope, with Bollington Civic Society
NOTES ON WHITE NANCY, Walter Smith, Macclesfield Courier, 25 Mar & 1 April 1948
OLD CHESHIRE CHURCHES, Raymond Richards, 1947
OLD ORDNANCE SURVEY MAPS, The Godfrey Edition sheet 98, STOCKPORT, ALTRINCHAM & NE CHESHIRE 1912
ORDNANCE SURVEY 1 INCH TO THE MILE OLD SERIES MAP, Sheet 81 (Buxton) 1840-1842, reprinted as sheet 27 of the David and Charles edition, 1970
ORDNANCE SURVEY 25 INCH MAP, 1ST ED, sheets XXIX.13 and XXXVII.1, surveyed 1871, published 1875, Cheshire Record Office (photocopies in Macclesfield Public Library)
ORDNANCE SURVEY 25 INCH MAP, 2ND ED (1ST REVISION), sheets XXIX.13 and XXXVII.1, revised 1896, published 1898, Cheshire Record Office
ORDNANCE SURVEY 25 INCH MAP, 3RD ED (2ND REVISION), sheets XXIX.13 and XXXVII.1, revised 1907, published 1909, Cheshire Record Office (photocopies in Macclesfield Public Library)
ORDNANCE SURVEY DRAWINGS, 2 INCHES TO THE MILE, map 351, surveyed 1837, British Library, copies in Cheshire Record Office
ORDNANCE SURVEY DRAWINGS, 2 INCHES TO THE MILE, sheet 81, surveyed 1839, British Library, copies in Cheshire Record Office
PALATINATE STUDIES, W. H. Chaloner, 1992
PEAKLAND ROADS AND TRACKWAYS, A. E. Dodd & E. M. Dodd, 3rd ed, 2000
PICTURESQUE CHESHIRE, T. A. Coward, Esq.
PIGOT & SLATER CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1841
PIGOTS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1834
PLAN OF MACCLESFIELD CANAL, 40 INCHES TO THE MILE, 1890s, copy with the Macclesfield Canal Society
POYNTON, A COALMINING VILLAGE; SOCIAL HISTORY, TRANSPORT AND INDUSTRY 1700-1939, W. H. Shercliff, D. A. Kitching & J. M. Ryan, 1983
PRESTBURY PARISH REGISTERS (microfilm, Macclesfield Public Library)
PROPOSED NEW ROAD FROM BOLLINGTON TO RAINOW, copy of part of a plan, nd, in the hands of the writer
PROVINCIAL POETRY 1789-1839, C.R. Johnson, 1992
PUBLIC ENQUIRY INTO REFUSAL OF PERMISSION TO ERECT A FACTORY, JACKSON LANE, KERRIDGE, 10 February 1954, transcript of proceedings, and submissions, in the archive of Bollington Town Council
RAINOW IN THE OLDEN TIME, no. 4, Cheshire Sheaf, vol XVIII, quoted in Walter Smith, Macclesfield Courier, 15 April 1932
RAINOW IN THE OLDEN TIME, Walter Smith, 61 articles in the Macclesfield Courier, from March 1932
RAINOW LAND TAX RETURNS, Cheshire Record Office
RAINOW TITHE MAP & APPORTIONMENT, 1848/50
RAINOW TITHE MAP, 1850, AND APPORTIONMENT, 1848, Cheshire Record Office (photocopies in Macclesfield Public Library)
REGISTER OF THE BLACK PRINCE, Public Record Office.
ROCKS OF AGES, article in Bollington Live!, March 1977
SALE OF TITHES (Bollington and other townships), Prospectus, Macclesfield Arms Hotel, 9-10 Jan 1844
SALTWAYS FROM THE CHESHIRE WICHES, W. B. Crump, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol 54, 1940
SCRAPBOOK, Slater, Harrison & Co.
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RAINOW, Jane Laughton, 1990
SITES AND MONUMENTS RECORD, Cheshire County Council
SLATERS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1848
SLATERS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1883
SLATERS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1888
SLATERS CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1890
SLATERS LIVERPOOL DIRECTORY, 1844
SOME EVIDENCE OF EARLY ROMAN MILITARY ACTIVITY ON THE SOUTH-WEST PENNINE FLANK, Alan Richardson, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol CXL, 1987
SURVEY OF SOME OF THE LANDS IN BOLINGTON BELONGING TO EDWARD DOUNES, 1686, Downes Papers, Cheshire Record Office
SWIRE & HUTCHINGS’ CHESHIRE MAP, 1829
THE AGRICULTURAL HISTORY OF CHESHIRE 1750 – 1850, C. Stella Davies, 1961
THE ANCIENT PARISH OF PRESTBURY, F. Renaud, 1876
THE BOLLINGTON HOUSING SCHEME 1920-1922, commemorative booklet, 1922
THE BUILDINGS OF ENGLAND: CHESHIRE, Pevsner, Nikolaus & Hubbard, Edward, Penguin Books, 1971
THE COMMERCIAL DIRECTORY, 1814-15
THE COMMERCIAL DIRECTORY, 1816-17
THE DARK SATANIC MILLS. CHILD APPRENTICES IN DERBYSHIRE SPINNING FACTORIES, Edmund & Ruth Frow, 1980
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TURNPIKE SYSTEM IN LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE, William Harrison, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, vol 4, 1886
THE MACCLESFIELD EYRE ROLLS, translated by Mr. R. Stewart-Browne, Chetham’s Society.
THE GREGS OF QUARRY BANK MILL, Mary B. Rose, 1986
THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTY PALATINE AND CITY OF CHESTER, George Ormerod, 1819, reprinted with additions by Thomas Helsby, 1882
THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTY PALATINE AND DUCHY OF LANCASTER, Edward Baines, new edition revised by James Croston, 1888-1893, vol 3
THE LOST MILLS OF ROWARTH, Eileen Miller, 1984
THE LOST ROUTES OF BOLLINGTON, George Longden, Bollington Live! nos. 13, 15, 17
THE MILLS OF NEW MILLS, 2nd ed, John V. Symonds, 1991
THE MINISTRY OF YOUTH. THE WORK OF SAVIO HOUSE, Bollington Live! March 2001
THE ORIGINS OF CHESHIRE, N.J. Higham, 1993
THE ORIGINS OF THE BOLLINGTON COTTON INDUSTRY, George Longden, Bollington Magazine 2, August 1990
THE PEAK DISTRICT, R. Millward & A. Robinson, 1975
THE PEOPLE OF KERRIDGE, 1851, article in Macclesfield Express, 16 March 1972
THE PLACE NAMES OF CHESHIRE, Part 1, J McN. Dodgson, 1970
THE PLACE NAMES OF RAINOW, Jane Laughton, articles in Contact, the Parish Magazine of Rainow with Saltersford and Forest, Jan 2000 – May 2001
THE QUARRIES OF THE MACCLESFIELD AREA, D. A. Kitching, 1977, unpublished article, Macclesfield Public Library
THE REGISTER BOOK OF CHRISTENINGS, WEDDINGS, AND BURIALS WITHIN THE PARISH OF PRESTBURY … 1560-1636, James Croston (ed.), Record Society, 1881
THE STORY OF RAINOW, Rainow Women’s’ Institute, 1974
THE STORY OF THE CHURCH IN RAINOW, Mary Meacham, 1996
THE TOWNSHIP OF RAINOW IN THE 17TH CENTURY, Jane Laughton, unpublished thesis, Cert in Local History, Manchester University, 1986
THE TURNPIKE ROADS OF THE PEAK DISTRICT, J. Radley & S. R. Penny, Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, Vol XCII, 1972
TOWNSHIP PACK NO. 20 BOLLINGTON, prepared an published by Cheshire Libraries, Arts & Archives, undated but after 1986
VAREY’S HISTORY AND DIRECTORY OF MACCLESFIELD AND VICINITY, 1825
WHITES CHESHIRE DIRECTORY, 1860
WORRALLS STOCKPORT DIRECTORY, 1872
History of Good Dog Fanny and Tuft, the Canary. With other Stories, all True, published with a coloured frontispiece in London, Edinburgh and New York by T. Nelson and Sons in 1881, by Mrs Margaret E. Gaskell, aged 67. This is NOT the Mrs Gaskell of letters fame (that was Elizabeth C. Gaskell), but the lady of Ingersley Hall, now Savio House. I am grateful to John A. V. Chapple, Editor of noted books about Mrs Elizabeth Gaskell’s letters, for bringing this book and confusion to my notice. Not now available online.
Scenes From the Life of Jesus, Samuel Greg, 1869, available on Google Books. A delightful and very readable interpretation of Bible stories.
Letters on Religious Belief, Samuel Greg, 1856.
Two letters to Leonard Horner, Esq., on the capabilities of the factory system, Samuel Greg, 1840.
Doctor Chekhov, A Study in Literature and Medicine, Dr. John Coope MBE, 1997. Dr. Coope was Bollington’s leading GP for very many years during the second half of the 20thC. I believe he saw many parallels, such as medical research and practice, literature, and music, between himself and Chekhov which lead to him studying and writing about the latter.